100 Transcendental Etudes (1940–44)

Comments by Fredrik Ullén


Most of the 100 Transcendental Studies, in particular the pieces in the beginning of the cycle, are typical concert études in the sense that essentially a single technical or structural idea is explored. Later on Sorabji inserts pieces that are on a much larger scale than the traditional étude: extended, highly ornamented “nocturnes”; a huge Waltz; a Habanera and a Passacaglia with 100 variations. The tendency towards larger and larger forms culminates with the two last études, a hugely expanded elaboration of J. S. Bach’s Chromatic Fantasia and a quintuple fugue with a duration of at least 45 minutes, respectively.

The title 100 Transcendental Studies naturally alludes to Liszt’s famous set of the same kind, and Sorabji may have been stimulated to write his études after attending a concert with Egon Petri playing the Liszt études. Other obvious influences are Scriabin, Busoni and Godowsky, but in his use of evolving patterns of immense textural and rhythmic complexity Sorabji by far exceeds all of his precursors. At least in this regard, it is tempting to see the Sorabji etudes as presages of the piano music of, say, Ligeti, Finnissy or Ferneyhough. However, these comparisons should not be taken too far. As composer, pianist and thinker Sorabji remains sui generis; his vast pianistical universe is compelling and strangely different from any other music before or after him. Among his mature works, 100 Transcendental Studies occupy a key position.

The following brief descriptive comments on some of the individual studies were originally written for concert programs and might give a feeling for the variety of ideas explored in this work.

[The timings on this page are estimates made by Fredrik Ullén, and will be updated to reflect the timings taken by him in his BIS recording of the entire set (so the timings for the first 62 studies are the same as those on the first, second and third recordings in the series).]


Comments on the individual études


Etude no.1 Mouvementé

  • Duration: 1:50
  • Première: Yonty Solomon (30/09/1979, Salone Villa Olmo, Como, Italy 13th Autonno Musicale)

A whirling, turbulent exploration of a rapid seven-note motive. The étude starts with two parts in the middle-register but soon double-notes and chords are added, and in a characteristic Sorabjian manner the musical activity extends over the whole range of the keyboard.


Etude no.2 Vivace e leggiero

  • Duration: 1:09
  • Première: Carlo Grante (20/07/1995, The Breakers, Newport, Rhode Island, USA XXVII Newport Music Festival)

Pianistically a devilish piece based on large leaps in both hands; musically perhaps an ironical wink at Chopin’s Étude in A minor, op. 25, no. 4. Occasional repetitions of a figure function as structural landmarks.


Etude no.3 (untitled)

  • Duration: 4:17
  • Première: Carlo Grante (24/03/2000, Auditorium ‘Di Vittorio’ della Camera del Lavoro, Milano, Italy Associazione Culturale Secondo Maggio — Musica & Atelier)

Melodical phrases are entwined with accompanying triplet figures in a tranquil web of sound. Basically a piece in four voices, which sometimes thicken into chordal melodies.


Etude no.4 Scriabinesco. Soave e con tenerezza nostalgica

  • Duration: 2:53
  • Première: Carlo Grante (18/10/1998, Wigmore Hall, London, UK )

This is an arabesque and a loving meditation on Scriabin’s Étude in B major, op. 8, no. 4. There are some interesting polymetric experiments in the later section.


Etude no.5 Staccato e leggiero

  • Duration: 1:24
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (27/04/2002, Dance Museum, Stockholm, Sweden )

A reminiscence of Liszt? Both hands play triplets of large staccato chords in a Wilde Jagd that makes effective use of the sostenuto pedal on a couple of occasions.


Etude no.6 (untitled)

  • Duration: 1:37
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (15/07/2002, Taubman Festival, Williamstown MA, USA )

The 100 Transcendental Studies contain double-note études for each possible interval. This is the first one, an étude in seconds with rich use of 3:4 polyrhythms. A scintillating will-o’-the-wisp etude in the romantic tradition.


Etude no.7 Leggiero abbastanza

  • Duration: 1:07
  • Première: Carlo Grante (20/07/1995, The Breakers, Newport, Rhode Island, USA XXVII Newport Music Festival)

A brief and effective piece based on arpeggiated triads. As often in the cycle, the hands change roles on occasion.


Etude no.8 (untitled)

  • Duration: 1:56
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (15/02/2003, Allhelgonakyrkan, Stockholm, Sweden )

The étude in thirds. A delicate piece where elegantly flowing double-note passages are played by the right hand, the left hand or both together.


Etude no.9 Staccato e leggiero

  • Duration: 0:58
  • Première: Andrew Ball (02/11/1997, York Arts Centre, York, UK The Late Music Festival ’97)

A remarkably modern piece for its time. Both hands play staccato chords, first in perfect asynchrony, later on with irregular alternations between the hands. Frequently Sorabji has one hand play only on white keys and the other only on black keys, a device used much later by e.g. György Ligeti.


Etude no.10 Con brio ed impeto — Volante

  • Duration: 3:09
  • Première: Yonty Solomon (30/09/1979, Salone Villa Olmo, Como, Italy 13th Autonno Musicale)

Cascades of arpeggiated triads accompany demoniacal incantations à la Scriabin. The furious coda has few parallels in its wild virtuosity.


Etude no.11 Animato abbastanza

  • Duration: 1:37
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (17/08/2003, Rolf-Liebermann Studio (NDR), Hamburg, Germany Schleswig-Holstein Festival)

Triplet figures ascend and descend irregularly in a winding motion round melody fragments in both hands. The music vanishes in a leggierissimo saltando that prepares the ground, as it were, for the next étude.


Etude no.12 Leggerio quasi “saltando”

  • Duration: 1:44
  • Première: Carlo Grante (23/08/1996, Rittersaal/Konzertsaal, Schloß vor Husum, Husum, Germany Raritäten der Klaviermusik)

A study in staccato chords, where the piano imitates the string player saltando. Occasional, accentuated phrases in longer note-values appear as brief remarks from the wind section.


Etude no.13 (untitled)

  • Duration: 3:31
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (15/02/2003, Allhelgonakyrkan, Stockholm, Sweden )

A remarkable study in trills and tremolos, erotic and emotionally overstrung. The demons of the late Scriabin are lurking here, as on many other places, of course; in particular, the piece evokes his Étude op. 42, no. 3.


Etude no.14 Tranquillamente soave

  • Duration: 4:35
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (15/02/2003, Allhelgonakyrkan, Stockholm, Sweden )

An Oriental carpet of endless, aimlessly drifting melodic lines. Sorabji’s deep originality, even relative to those composers in the Western tradition he deeply admired, is clearly revealed in pieces like this: a music of highly complex, ever-changing patterns that lacks any sense of drama or even inner directionality.


Etude no.15 (untitled)

  • Duration: 1:40
  • Première: Andrew Ball (02/11/1997, York Arts Centre, York, UK The Late Music Festival ’97)

A short, sparkling étude that explores shifts between quadruple and quintuple metrics as well between leggerio and legato articulation.


Etude no.16 (untitled)

  • Duration: 2:43
  • Première: Carlo Grante (08/02/1998, Amici della Musica, Auditorium Cesare Pollini, Padua, Italy )

The brilliantly shining étude in fourths, with rich use of the upper register of the piano and sharp, accentuated rhythms. As usual in the double-note études, passages of double notes are written for both hands.


Etude no.17 Molto accentato

  • Duration: 1:56
  • Première: Giampaolo Nuti (13/11/1999, Sala Maggiore, Convento degli Agostiniani, Empoli, Italy Convegno Internazionale di Studi “Ferruccio Busoni e il Pianoforte del Novecento”)

A brief, homophonic intermezzo with accentuated chords that suggest trumpets and other wind instruments. The slow metronome indication is, unusally, given by Sorabji himself.


Etude no.18 Liscio. Tranquillamente scorrevole

  • Duration: 5:15
  • Première: Giampaolo Nuti (13/11/1999, Sala Maggiore, Convento degli Agostiniani, Empoli, Italy Convegno Internazionale di Studi “Ferruccio Busoni e il Pianoforte del Novecento”)

This is the étude in fifths, which contains some exquisite, sensual writing for the piano. One of the larger double-note études, and one of the finest inspirations among the early études of the collection.


Etude no.19 Saltando e leggiero

  • Duration: 2:12
  • Première: Carlo Grante (02/06/1996, Wigmore Hall, London, UK )

A repeated, small cell of four jumping staccato chords, played first by the right hand, forms the basis of this piece. After a while the hands change roles — à la Godowsky — and the piece ends triumphantly with the main motive played by both hands. Sorabji maintains a weak sense of G major tonality throughout the piece.


Etude no.20 Con fantasia

  • Duration: 5:24
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (09/07/2003, Yxtaholm Castle, Yxtaholm, Sweden )

One of Sorabji’s refined, mysterious nocturnes. A single, ornamented sotto voce singing line meanders above accompanying figures in the left hand. Later new strands enter to form a fabric of sound of a sensual complexity that is typical of Sorabji.


Etude no.21 Con eleganza e disinvoltura

  • Duration: 4:37
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (09/07/2003, Yxtaholm Castle, Yxtaholm, Sweden )

The étude in sixths. The free, almost nonchalant, character of the piece can not hide its pianistic difficulties, which are absolutely Sorabjian.


Etude no.22 Leggiero volante e presto assai

  • Duration: 1:24
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (09/07/2003, Yxtaholm Castle, Yxtaholm, Sweden )

The piece explores an interesting, new device for pianistic fireworks: glissandi on chords. A quick, hazardous piece that passes by leaving you in wonder of what really happened.


Etude no.23 Dolcemente scorrevole

  • Duration: 4:00
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (22/09/2005, Bærum Kulturhus, Sandvika, Norway Sandvika Master Series)

The étude is written in sections, with increasingly complicated arabesque patterns, that finally reach the (almost) unplayable. Melodic lines sometimes hover in the foreground, sometimes disappear into the vortices of the background.


Etude no.24 Con fantasia e grazia

  • Duration: 5:40
  • Première: Yonty Solomon (30/09/1979, Salone Villa Olmo, Como, Italy 13th Autonno Musicale)

A very capricious and unpredictable study in sevenths. This study, together with studies 1 and 10, was the first to be performed in concert (by Yonty Solomon on Sept 30, 1979).


Etude no.25 Vivace e secco

  • Duration: 2:42
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (11/08/2003, Musikföreningen Crescendo, Norrköping, Sweden )

A violent étude in staccato chords: first single unison chords, later repeated chords that are distributed in various ways between the hands to build up a dramatic culmination at the end of the piece.


Etude no.26 Dolcissimo

  • Duration: 9:56
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (11/08/2003, Musikföreningen Crescendo, Norrköping, Sweden )

A beautiful piece of night music — incidentally also one of the several etudes of which there exists a sketchy but interesting private recording in the Frank Holliday collection, made by Sorabji himself in relatively old age. A soft high-register motive in the right hand, later varied in different ways, shimmers like moon-light above warm, arpeggiated chords and melodies in the left hand.


Etude no.27 Staccato e leggiero a capriccio

  • Duration: 2:57
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.28 Leggiero e volante

  • Duration: 2:15
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (17/08/2003, Rolf-Liebermann Studio (NDR), Hamburg, Germany Schleswig-Holstein Festival)

A lively étude where a single motive and its mirror-image are developed by a gradual accumulation of new notes, until the music reaches both ends of the keyboard and terminates.


Etude no.29 A capriccio. Leggiero

  • Duration: 2:09
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (22/09/2005, Bærum Kulturhus, Sandvika, Norway Sandvika Master Series)


Etude no.30 Con fantasia

  • Duration: 4:36
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (22/09/2005, Bærum Kulturhus, Sandvika, Norway Sandvika Master Series)


Etude no.31 Vivace assai

  • Duration: 2:14
  • Première: Carlo Grante (20/07/1995, The Breakers, Newport, Rhode Island, USA XXVII Newport Music Festival)

An exploration of a rapid flow of four-note figures. As in many of the more traditional études, where a single technical idea is developed, Sorabji alternates the difficulties between the hands, and finally employs them in both hands together.


Etude no.32 Legato possibile, quasi dolce

  • Duration: 3:12
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (17/08/2003, Rolf-Liebermann Studio (NDR), Hamburg, Germany Schleswig-Holstein Festival)

All rhythmic complexities are avoided in this étude, to achieve a gentle, undulating flow of dense chords in the middle register of the piano. As often Sorabji uses complex combinations of triadic harmonies without any clear sense of traditional tonal relations.


Etude no.33 Vivace e brioso

  • Duration: 4:42
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.34 Soave e dolce. Insinuante

  • Duration: 4:11
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (17/08/2003, Rolf-Liebermann Studio (NDR), Hamburg, Germany Schleswig-Holstein Festival)

“Insinuating” is the unusual character Sorabji indicates for the seductive but poisonous opening of this piece, which uses the 6 versus 5 polyrhythm throughout. The technique used here, to let melodic lines thicken into chordal counterpoint, is often used by Sorabji in his later works.


Etude no.35 (untitled)

  • Duration: 2:17
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (22/03/2006, Music Conservatory, Falun, Sweden )


Etude no.36 Mano sinistra sempre sola

  • Duration: 7:16
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (20/11/1999, Auditorium “Concordia”, Treviso, Italy )


Etude no.37 Riflessioni. Moderato

  • Duration: 3:54
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (11/08/2003, Musikföreningen Crescendo, Norrköping, Sweden )

A good-tempered and not-too-serious play with a cavalcade of motives and their inversions. The inversions first appear as echoes, but soon both motive and reflection are played together.


Etude no.38 Con fantasia

  • Duration: 4:53
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.39 (untitled)

  • Duration: 3:34
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.40 Moderato

  • Duration: 3:09
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (17/08/2003, Rolf-Liebermann Studio (NDR), Hamburg, Germany Schleswig-Holstein Festival)

Structurally a relatively simple étude, with solemn processions of triadic chords in both hands. A friendly nod at Mussorgskij…?


Etude no.41 (untitled)

  • Duration: 3:40
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (19/08/2006, Teatro La Fenice, Amandola, Italy PerPianoSolo Festival)


Etude no.42 Impetuoso e con fuoco ed energia

  • Duration: 4:15
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.43 (untitled)

  • Duration: 4:39
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (19/08/2006, Teatro La Fenice, Amandola, Italy PerPianoSolo Festival)


Etude no.44 Ben cantato. Dolce e chiaro

  • Duration: 15:25
  • Première: Kentaro Noda (02/11/2008, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan 6th Soudai Piano Ashura Festival)


Etude no.45 (untitled)

  • Duration: 1:26
  • Première: unperformed

An energetic piece based on a single, incisive motive with rapid alternations between the hands.


Etude no.46 (untitled)

  • Duration: 2:44
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.47 Leggiero e a capriccio

  • Duration: 2:35
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.48 Volante

  • Duration: 3:14
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.49 Vivace ma non troppo

  • Duration: 2:23
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (17/08/2003, Rolf-Liebermann Studio (NDR), Hamburg, Germany Schleswig-Holstein Festival)

Relatively unremarkable, this étude nevertheless gains motoric energy and rhythmic momentum by frequent changes in metrics. One of the études where equality of opportunity between the hands is assured by having them change roles now and then.


Etude no.50 Per il pedale 3

  • Duration: 4:50
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (17/08/2003, Rolf-Liebermann Studio (NDR), Hamburg, Germany Schleswig-Holstein Festival)

Use of the sostenuto-pedal is certainly beneficial in a lot of Sorabji’s music, but this is an étude specifically for the otherwise often neglected middle pedal of the piano. Here it is used to maintain long chords, leaving both hands free to play increasingly elaborate arcs of eight-notes figures.


Etude no.51 (untitled)

  • Duration: 3:15
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.52 (untitled)

  • Duration: 3:14
  • Première: Alexander Abercrombie (12/04/2003, St. Anne’s Parish Church, Lytham St. Anne’s, UK )

A four-part study in 3 versus 4 polyrhythm, centered in the middle register of the piano.


Etude no.53 A capriccio

  • Duration: 1:59
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.54 (untitled)

  • Duration: 4:17
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.55 (untitled)

  • Duration: 2:43
  • Première: unperformed

One of the studies where Sorabji inventively explores a simple motive, in this case a three-beat staccato figure with repeated sixteenth notes. Inversions and alternations between the hands as well as growth by replications and additions of notes are used in a texture of increasing density.


Etude no.56 Moderato

  • Duration: 3:10
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.57 (untitled)

  • Duration: 2:02
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.58 Leggiero

  • Duration: 3:31
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.59 Quasi fantasia. Moderato

  • Duration: 10:46
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (18/05/2003, Centre Culturel Suédois, Paris, France )

This is one of the larger études, written in Sorabji’s delicate, impressionistic “nocturnal” style. As the title indicates, the piece has a free, improvisatory character. Quintuplet motives are explored in textures of increasing density and rhythmic complexity, and in later sections in a characteristic Sorabjian manner the musical activity extends over the whole range of the keyboard.


Etude no.60 Saltando, leggiero

  • Duration: 3:07
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.61 (untitled)

  • Duration: 4:12
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.62 (untitled)

  • Duration: 2:37
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.63 En forme de valse. Leggiero con disinvoltura

  • Duration: 16:00
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.64 (untitled)

  • Duration: 2:30
  • Première: unperformed

The main motive of this étude consists of chromatically falling lines of two-note groups, which are varied in different ways, using imitation techniques.


Etude no.65 (untitled)

  • Duration: 2:00
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (12/08/2003, Byärka-Säby Castle, Byärka-Säby, Sweden )

Sorabji demonstrates his good sense of humour in this piece, based on fast appoggiaturas and sequences of staccato triads.


Etude no.66 (untitled)

  • Duration: 4:00
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (07/09/1996, Auditorium “E. R. Duni”, Matera, Italy Polifonica Materana “P. L. da Palestrina”: Piano Forum 1996)

A hypnotic music of large arpeggiated chords embedding a slowly sung, rhythmically free melody in the middle register.


Etude no.67 (untitled)

  • Duration: 3:00
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (12/08/2003, Byärka-Säby Castle, Byärka-Säby, Sweden )

A highly polyphonic fantasia, where Sorabji restricts himself to comparatively simple rhythmic relations.


Etude no.68 Sotto voce

  • Duration: 2:15
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.69 La punta d’organo. Sotto voce

  • Duration: 17:00
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.70 Rhythmes brisés

  • Duration: 3:30
  • Première: Alexander Abercrombie (12/04/2003, St. Anne’s Parish Church, Lytham St. Anne’s, UK )


Etude no.71 Aria

  • Duration: 9:00
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.72 Canonica. Marcato

  • Duration: 1:50
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (19/12/1997, Teatro Giusepe Verdi, Pisa, Italy )


Etude no.73 Quasi Preludio-corale. Sonorità piena, morbida e dolcissima

  • Duration: 9:30
  • Première: Kentaro Noda (02/11/2008, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan 6th Soudai Piano Ashura Festival)


Etude no.74 Ostinato. Secco

  • Duration: 4:15
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.75 Passacaglia. Largo

  • Duration: 26:00
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (17/08/2003, Rolf-Liebermann Studio (NDR), Hamburg, Germany Schleswig-Holstein Festival)

This grand Passacaglia is with its theme and 100 variations one of the largest études of the whole cycle. A detailed discussion of the different variations is naturally out of scope for this text, and a few general remarks will have to suffice. Both the character and key of the theme (B minor) suggests that Sorabji may have been inspired by the famous Godowsky passacaglia when writing this piece. In spite of the sometimes highly dissonant and complex harmonies Sorabji uses in some places, the theme serves to anchor the piece firmly in B minor. In the initial variations, Sorabji increases the number of voices and introduces faster note-values according to a rigid scheme. Later on, more free variation techniques are used, illustrating Sorabji’s talent for creative ornamentation. Notably, many of the variations appear as miniatures or reflections of études elsewhere in the cycle — it is probably no coincidence that the number of variations in the Passacaglia and the number of études in the whole cycle is the same. Towards the end of the piece, Sorabji asks for a truly transcendental pianism, creating veritable tsunamis of sound, before the music halts in the grandiose last variations that end the passacaglia.


Etude no.76 Imitations. Presto assai

  • Duration: 0:50
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (19/12/1997, Teatro Giusepe Verdi, Pisa, Italy )

A very brief musical joke, based on — as the title indicates — imitations.


Etude no.77 (untitled)

  • Duration: 1:20
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (19/12/1997, Teatro Giusepe Verdi, Pisa, Italy )


Etude no.78 (untitled)

  • Duration: 1:25
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.79 The inlaid line. Legatissimo il tema melodico

  • Duration: 2:00
  • Première: Jørgen Hald Nielsen (09/04/2011, Academy of Music, Esbjerg, Denmark )


Etude no.80 La linea melodica. Mormorando sordamente

  • Duration: 3:50
  • Première: Kentaro Noda (02/11/2008, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan 6th Soudai Piano Ashura Festival)


Etude no.81 The Suspensions. Lento quasi Adagio e gravemente solenne

  • Duration: 4:30
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (07/09/1996, Auditorium “E. R. Duni”, Matera, Italy Polifonica Materana “P. L. da Palestrina”: Piano Forum 1996)

One of the few slow études, choral like in its texture, with frequent use of suspensions.


Etude no.82 Sordamente e oscuramente minaccioso

  • Duration: 2:15
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.83 Arpeggiated fourths

  • Duration: 3:30
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (20/11/1999, Auditorium “Concordia”, Treviso, Italy )

An elegant arabesque, based entirely on arpeggatied fourths. Occasional double-note figures appear as distant memories of the étude in fourths, number 16.


Etude no.84 Tango habanera. Leggiero, con grazia indolente

  • Duration: 8:00
  • Première: Jonathan Powell (01/02/2003, Muziekcentrum Vredenburg, Utrecht, Netherlands “Rondom Kaikhosru Sorabji”)


Etude no.85 (untitled)

  • Duration: 1:40
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (20/11/1999, Auditorium “Concordia”, Treviso, Italy )


Etude no.86 Adagietto. Legatissimo

  • Duration: 2:20
  • Première: Carlo Grante (23/01/1996, Villa Romanazzi Carducci, Sala Europa, Bari, Italy )


Etude no.87 Studio gammatico

  • Duration: 3:15
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.88 (untitled)

  • Duration: 1:20
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (19/12/1997, Teatro Giusepe Verdi, Pisa, Italy )

A brief, stern piece — slightly archaic in its counterpointal style.


Etude no.89 Chopsticks. Vivace

  • Duration: 1:20
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (12/08/2003, Byärka-Säby Castle, Byärka-Säby, Sweden )

A virtuous showpiece based on alternating chords between the hands, with irregularly inserted pauses.


Etude no.90 (untitled)

  • Duration: 3:00
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.91 Volante leggiero

  • Duration: 1:45
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.92 Legato possibile. Velato, misterioso

  • Duration: 1:30
  • Première: Fredrik Ullén (17/08/2003, Rolf-Liebermann Studio (NDR), Hamburg, Germany Schleswig-Holstein Festival)

An ominous music of winding, growing legatissimo figures that imperceptibly appear from the silence. The piece disappears in the shadows at the lower end of the keyboard.


Etude no.93 Leggiero, saltando

  • Duration: 2:10
  • Première: unperformed


Etude no.94 Ornaments. Con fantasia

  • Duration: 3:30
  • Première: Florian Steininger (15/02/2013, Musentempel, Karlsruhe, Germany )


Etude no.95 (untitled)

  • Duration: 0:45
  • Première: Nicola Ventrella (20/11/1999, Auditorium “Concordia”, Treviso, Italy )


Etude no.96 (untitled)

  • Duration: 2:50
  • Première: Kentaro Noda (02/11/2008, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan 6th Soudai Piano Ashura Festival)


Etude no.97 (untitled)

  • Duration: 3:00
  • Première: Kentaro Noda (19/07/2007, Matsuo Steinway-Salon, Tokyo, Japan )


Etude no.98 Staccato e vivace

  • Duration: 2:40
  • Première: Kentaro Noda (19/07/2007, Matsuo Steinway-Salon, Tokyo, Japan )


Etude no.99 Quasi fantasia. Scorrevole

  • Duration: 17:00
  • Première: Kentaro Noda (04/01/2006, Nakameguro GT Plaza Hall, Tokyo, Japan )

The full title of this étude, a hugely expanded elaboration of the Fantasia from J. S. Bach’s Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue in D minor, BWV 903, reads: Quasi fantasia (nello stile della Fantasia cromatica di Giovanni Sebastiano).


Etude no.100 Coda-finale. Fuga a cinque soggetti

  • Duration: 38:50
  • Première: Kentaro Noda (04/01/2006, Nakameguro GT Plaza Hall, Tokyo, Japan )